Perkian - Android

Written by Rich Morin.

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Precis:  notes on porting Perkian to the Android operating system

Google’s Android operating system supports cellular phones, tablet computers, and other devices. It is extremely popular, with billions of active users. However, it is not particularly popular in the blind and visually-disabled communities, where Apple’s iOS is generally perceived as being more accessible.

Improving the accessibility of Android’s basic user interface is Google’s responsibility (and far beyond my pay grade!). However, it may be possible to extend Android in various ways, adding accessible workarounds and supplementary applications. For example, a personal web server could transform both local and remote content.

In addition, because Android is based on Linux, it can support a wide range of open source software. This might include data transformation tools (e.g., digital image processing, text processing), support for braille output and speech input, etc. See the Perkian page for more information on this general idea.

Software Constraints

Google has released several versions of Android over the past decade or so. These have been augmented by device vendors and delivered with the devices. As the devices get older, operating system support tends to diminish. Specifically, each device type tends to be limited to a range of OS versions. And, if a given OS feature is not present in the available versions, the device will not be able to take advantage of it.

Also, although Android is based on Linux, it is not a pure open-source offering. Parts of the operating system are proprietary and cannot be modified or removed without rooting the system. This can pose an obstacle to maintaining current versions of the OS.

Storage Constraints

Most Android devices have fairly limited internal storage (e.g., 32 GB). Some devices allow the use of SD cards, but these can’t be used directly for executable binaries:

External SD cards usually are formatted in FAT32 or exFAT file systems which don’t have support for Unix permissions (chmod/chown) and special files such as sockets or symlinks. Also, Android enforces noexec mount option for user’s storage, so you won’t be able to execute binaries.

Notion: It should be possible to store arbitrary content on the SD card and copy it over to a cache in (say) /tmp for use. The content could be stored in Zip format, saving space and allowing permissions to be restored automagically. Of course, data files could also be kept on the SD card…

To be continued…

Related Work

There are a number of ways to extend (or even replace) Android. Here are some notes and links on options that we’re currently tracking…


Anyfed is a “universal Fedora chroot tool which lets you run Fedora anywhere on anything, with or without root”. It uses a Fedora Docker image.

Chroot (Debian)

There are various ways to run a Debian chroot on an Android device.


Crouton is a set of scripts that bundle up into an easy-to-use, Chromium OS-centric chroot generator.


DebianKit aims to provide a single Debian install directly in parallel with the existing Android install. This is possible since Android uses almost none of the standard UNIX paths, so Debian can just be copied directly onto the same file system. The one notable exception is that Android has a symlink to /system/etc at /etc, and there are a few files in /system/etc.

Status: The most recent commit is five years old.


Success has been reported for installing Docker Engine on Android (>= 3.10) and using Termux to access Docker containers.

Lil’ Debi

Lil’ Debi uses cdebootstrap to run the full install process on the Android device, then manage starting and stopping the chroot. It aims to provide a single Debian install in parallel with Android while touching the Android internals as little as possible. It provides a complete Debian install process and transparent boot integration.

Status: The Guardian Project is no longer supporting this effort and is asking for someone to take it over.

Linux Deploy

Linux Deploy is a tool for creating Linux disk images on an SD card:

This application is open source software for quick and easy installation of the operating system (OS) GNU/Linux on your Android device.

The application creates a disk image on a flash card, mounts it and installs an OS distribution. Applications of the new system are run in a chroot environment and work together with the Android platform. All changes made on the device are reversible, i.e. the application and components can be removed completely. Installation of a distribution is done by downloading files from official mirrors online over the internet. The application requires superuser rights (ROOT).

Status: The documentation is minimal and needs copy editing.


Maru, based on Android Marshmallow, is a replacement OS for Android-compatible cell phones. It provides two user interfaces: Desktop (via HDMI) and Mobile.

Status: It only supports Nexus cell phones (e.g., Nexus 5), which have limited storage (32 GB) and no SD card.


This project, based on Alpine Linux, hopes to provide a Linux release that can work on a wide range of “obsolete” Android cell phones. It is still in Alpha stage and has no current efforts toward accessibility.


PRoot is a user-space implementation of chroot, mount --bind, and binfmt_misc. This means that users don’t need any privileges or setup to do things like using an arbitrary directory as the new root filesystem.


Termux is an Android terminal emulator and Linux environment app that works directly with no rooting or setup required. A minimal base system is installed automatically - additional packages are available using the APT package manager.